In my previous article I managed to demonstrate that a password generation technique implemented by a tool in an organisation could be easily broken with as few as 300 passwords.

In the article I broke the password generator for the BIOS passwords generated by the aforementioned tool.

In this article, I will discuss breaking the local administrator passwords generated by the tool, and then go on to discuss the tool required to reproduce the passwords.

It should be noted, before I continue, that I do not have the tool used to generate the passwords. Instead, I have been given a list of sequential passwords generated from the tool.

The tool itself generates passwords based on the asset tag of the PC they are for. The asset tags are a number.

The passwords I have been given are for the 500 assets numbered 0 - 499.

Referring to my previous article, the local administrator passwords are 8 characters long, and were structured like this:

UlUlUnns

Where U is Uppercase letter, l is lowercase letter, n is number and s was a symbol.

In the same way as before, I started by looking at the first few passwords:

0 JcVvI32(

1 KdWwJ43)

2 LeXxK54*

3 MfYyL65+

4 NgZzM06-

5 OhAaN17!

At this stage I began to get the same sinking feeling that I got when I worked on the BIOS passwords. The passwords are, again, sequential.

I briefly hoped that the producer of the password generator tool had the aptitude to at least use a different technique for the two different password types...

But fairly soon it became obvious that these passwords were as simple to break as the other ones.

In fact, using the same technique as demonstrated in my previous article, I broke the entire set of formulae for each letter in less than 20 minutes!

Although characters 2 and 4 of this password are lowercase, they are not mixed, so they are still as limited as the uppercase characters, i.e. 26 possibilities in the sequence.

The final formulae for each character turn out to be:

1) l = (n + 113) mod 137 mod 26

2) l = (n + 54) mod 153 mod 26

3) l = (n + 21) mod 113 mod 26

4) l = (n + 99) mod 117 mod 26

5) l = (n + 86) mod 193 mod 26

6) l = (n + 123) mod 127 mod 10

7) l = (n + 202) mod 239 mod 10

8) l = (n + 105) mod 129 mod 10

Where l is the final number of the character in the sequence, and n is the asset number.

The character sequence for positions 1, 3 and 5 is A - Z (0 - 25).

The character sequence for positions 2 and 4 is a - z (0 - 25).

The character sequence for positions 6 and 7 is 0 - 9 (0 - 9).

The character sequence for position 8 is '!#$%&()*+-' ('0123456789').

The only minor benefit that was present with these passwords is that a much larger sequence was needed in order to be sure of the generation techniques.

In fact, I needed the full 500 for character 7 and just under 400 for 3 of the others.

That said though, the generation technique is still extremely poor, for the same reasons that the BIOS password generator was poor, and also:

AS EASY TO BRUTE FORCE (Following on from previous article section)

The BIOS passwords could be relatively easily brute forced.

These passwords are as easy, despite the inclusion of the lowercase characters.

This is because, like the BIOS passwords, the entire sequence is strict in it's structure.

The lowercase characters are always at positions 2 and 4.

If, like with the BIOS passwords, the full character sequence could be used in each position (A-Z, a-z, 0-9, symbols) then there would be 72 possibilities at each position:

72^8 = 722,204,136,308,736

A whopping 722 trillion, over 60,784 times more than for the standard password, and still 36 times more than the strongest possible BIOS password (with 46 possibilities per position).

I had been asked if I could produce a tool that would reproduce the passwords, given the asset number.

I was now armed with the knowledge to do this, so I proceeded to produce a tool to do the work outlined in this and my previous article.

I decided to write the tool in C# (Microsoft.Net 2.0).

A screenshot of the tool is shown below:

To use the tool, enter the asset code into the 'Asset Code' textbox, and click the Go button.

The Administrator password will appear in the "Admin Password" box and the BIOS password will appear in the "BIOS Password" box.

The tool itself simply implements the formulae described in this and my previous article to generate the passwords.

If you would like the source code for the tool, please e-mail me and I will send it to you.

The tool can be downloaded here.

To conclude:

Using password generation tools is a good idea. Company administrators find such tools invaluable in producing random passwords for hundreds, or thousands, of computers at an organisation.

Generation tools can produce passwords that appear to be significantly more random than those that could be thought up by a human.

However, if poorly implemented, password generation tools can pose a significant security risk.

Consider some important facts:

- My friend was able to obtain a list of 500 passwords generated for sequential asset numbers without having any administrative access to his domain

- The password algorithm used was easy to break, being based on a sequential generation system

- The password implementation was extremely poor, using a fixed format and poor combinations of character sequences

The organisation in question would have had a significantly more secure system if:

- The tool was protected so that only administrators could access it

- The algorithms used were truly random

- The passwords were never sequential

- The password format was not predefined

I may explore a password generator program in my next article, to see how it could be done in a more secure way.

If you have any queries about this article then don't hesitate to contact me.

Have fun!

## Monday, 3 September 2007

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